Francis Watts Lee

Francis Watts Lee (1867-1945) was a publisher and photographer based in Boston.  He is best known for publishing the Visionists’ journal The Knight Errant, helping to introduce a distinctive soft-focus lens that became associated with American pictorialism, and for his family’s role as friends and muses to several influential photographers.

Lee grew up in Roxbury, MA.  He attended the Chauncey School in Boston where he made friends with F. Holland Day.  He was married to Agnes Rand Lee, a poet and the daughter of William Henry Rand of Chicago, co-founder of Rand, McNally Company.

Lee was a staunch believer in Christian Socialism and a supporter of social justice-oriented Episcopalian organizations such the Order of the Holy Cross founded by hid friend Father James O. S. Huntington.  Like many of his fellow Visionists, he was also inspired by the Arts & Crafts movement.  Lee began a small press, Elzevir, committed to the fine art of print, like those of his friend Day and his hero William Morris.  Elzevir published The Knight Errant, a quarterly art and literature journal representing the perspectives of his friends Day, Ralph Adams Cram, Bertram Goodhue, Louise Imogen Guiney, and their circle.

Lee paid great attention to detail and the four issues of the “quarterly” took two years to release.  During this time he became a father and began a more reliable job running a printing press at the Boston Public Library, where he was Guiney’s co-worker.

Lee’s photography included sensitive portraits of his family and other women and children, and of Father Huntington.  Through Day he became part of a circle of pioneering photographers that included Gertrude Kasebier and Alvin Langdon Coburn, and Lee’s family became frequent models.  One of Kasebier’s best-known works, Blessed Art Thou Among Women, is an image of Agnes Rand Lee and daughter Peggy taken at their home in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston.

Lee was the most technically experimental of this circle, and worked with Henry Smith of Pinkham & Smith Company, prescription opticians and
photographic suppliers in Boston, to commission a special soft-focus lens for pictorialist photographers.  The first of its kind in the US, it was inspired by a lens Coburn purchased in England.

In 1910 Francis and Agnes Lee parted ways.  Francis married Marion Lewis Chamberlain, an MIT grad who worked in the fine arts department of the library.  They lived in Walpole, MA and Francis continued working at the library until he retired at the age of 70.

Source:

Patricia J. Fanning (2012) Francis Watts Lee: A Reintroduction, History of
Photography, 36:1, 15-32
 (requires academic access)

Further reading:

Patricia J. Fanning: Artful Lives: The Francis Watts Lee Family and Their Times, 2016

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Above: Portrait of Francis Watts Lee by Gertrude Kasebier.  Platinum print at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

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Above: Gertrude Kasebier: “Blessed Art Though Among Women.”  The models are Agnes Lee and daughter Peggy Lee at their home in Jamaica Plain.  A platinum print at The Met.

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Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924) was an architect and designer originally from Connecticut who spent a formative part of his career in Boston.  His architectural projects included the Los Angeles Central Library, campus buildings at Yale, West Point, and other universities, Saint Thomas Church and the Church of the Intercession in New York, and the Nebraska State Capital.  However his most familiar legacy may be the Cheltenham typeface that he co-designed, now used for headlines by The New York Times.

Goodhue began his architectural career in New York with an apprenticeship at the firm of James Renwick, Jr., who designed St. Patrick’s Cathedral.  In 1890 Goodhue won a competition to design a cathedral in Dallas, Texas.  Looking to complete the project as part of a younger firm, he chose the newly-formed Cram & Ferguson in Boston.

He and Ralph Adams Cram became collaborators and friends.  Cram later wrote “his pen-and-ink renderings were the wonder and the admiration of the whole profession, while he had a creative imagination, exquisite in the beauty of its manifestations, sometimes elflike in its fantasy, that actually left one breathless.  His personality was as baffling to any powers of description as was his artistic facility  Exuberantly enthusiastic, with an abounding and fantastic sense of humour, he flung gaiety and abandon widely around whenever he was in the temper to do so.”

Goodhue and Cram were core members of the Visionists, and Goodhue contributed designs to several of their publications, including the cover art for the Knight Errant journal.  During this period he also worked as a designer for other small presses.  In 1896 he co-designed the Cheltenham font (initially known as “Boston Old Style”) with Ingalls Kimball, director of the Cheltenham Press in New York.  (A native of W. Newton, MA, Kimball also co-founded Stone & Kimball press in Boston.)

Goodhue was a partner in Cram, Wentworth, & Goodhue (later Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson) from 1891 until 1914.  He collaborated on the neo-Gothic churches that made a name for the firm in New England, as well as the project that brought them national recognition– the master plan and key campus buildings for the US Military Academy at West Point.  After moving on to his own firm in 1914, he explored other styes including Spanish Colonial Revival and Romanesque.

Architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie worked with Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue and continued to collaborate with Goodhue through his life.  Lawrie is probably best known for the statue of Atlas in Rockefeller Center opposite St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York.  He also designed a Gothic tomb for Goodhue within the Church of the Intercession.

Sources:

Wikipedia

My Life in Architecture by Ralph Adams Cram

The Architecture of Ralph Adams Cram and His Office by Ethan Anthony

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Above: Portrait of Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue by fellow Visionist F. Holland Day. 1892.  Platinum print in the Library of Congress.

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Above Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (left) and Ralph Adams Cram (center) in their architectural office at 1 Park Sq., Boston, with a client (and a dog).  Courtesy of Cram & Ferguson archives.

Below: Sculpture of Goodhue by long-time collaborator Lee Lawrie.  Photo by Wikimedia user Einar Einarsson Kvaran.

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Bliss Carman

Bliss Carman (1861-1929) was a Canadian-born poet who spent most of his life in New England.  He is best known for the Songs From Vagabondia series of poetry books co-authored with fellow Visionist Richard Hovey, and published by Copeland and Day.  He originally came to the Boston area to attend Harvard, returned briefly to New Brunswick, then came back to Boston because it was “one of the few places where my critical education and tastes could be of any use to me in earning money.”

Copeland and Day printed a limited edition pamphlet of Carman’s poem “St. Kavin” that was distributed only to Visionist members.  A hand-written note on one member’s copy calls Carman “the prince of Visionists”.

Wikipedia

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Above: Portrait of Bliss Carman by Pirie MacDonald.  A print at the Library of Congress.

Thomas Buford Meteyard

Thomas Buford Meteyard (1865-1928) was a visual artist based in Boston for much of his career, and a member of the Visionists.  He illustrated several books for Copeland and Day press, including their popular “Songs of Vagabondia” series of poetry books.  In an unusual tribute to the role of the illustrator, Meteyard’s portrait appears on the covers of the books along with those of the authors, Bliss Carman and Richard Hovey.

Meteyard later spent time in France, studying under Monet at Giverny, and helped to bring the Impressionist movement to America.  He and his mother owned a beach house in Scituate, MA, called “Testudo” (Latin for “tortoise”), which was a frequent retreat for their artists friends, including the Visioninsts and fellow impressionist painter Dawson Dawson-Watson.

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Above: Thomas Buford Meteyard’s portraits of (left to right) himself, Bliss Carman, and Richard Hovey on the cover of Songs from Vagabondia.

Louise Imogen Guiney

Louise Imogen Guiney (1861-1920) was a poet and writer from Boston.  Her work included sonnets and other formal poetry, as well as essays and biographies.

Guiney came from an Irish American Catholic family and her father was a well-know Union officer in the Civil War.  In the 1890s she was part of several literary societies, allowing her to interact with established as well as up-and-coming writers, and introduced several of the friends who would form the Visionists.

At a time when most clubs and societies were single-gender, the Visionists were  an exception– Guiney took part in their mostly-male gatherings as did fellow writer Alice Brown.  The  journal The Knight Errant took it’s name from one of Guiney’s poems, included in the first issue.

Unlike her close friend F. Holland Day, who came from a wealthy family, Guiney had to find time for writing while working day jobs.  She ran the Auburndale post office in Newton, Massachusetts, and later became a cataloguer at the Boston Public Library.  In 1901 she moved to England, where she felt she could better focus on writing.

Guiney’s Catholic identity was very important to her at a time when discrimination against Irish Catholics was common in New England.  In his autobiography Ralph Adams Cram recalls that many residents of Newton refused to use the Auburndale post office after learning it was run by a “Papist”.  Her bohemian Boston friends flocked to Auburndale to buy stamps and insure she met her quota.

Guiney and her mother owned a beach house in Maine, nicknamed “Castle Guiney”.  Day bought the house from them as a way of helping Louise financially, and renovated it to the “Little Good Harbor” estate where he did much of his later work and hosted fellow photographers.

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Above: Portrait by F. Holland Day, 1893, of Louise Imogen Guiney, dressed as St. Barbara (with halo added in pencil!)  St. Barbara is associated with soldiers and this persona may have been inspired by Guiney’s war hero father.  Print in the Library of Congress.

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Above: Drawing of Louise Imogen Guiney by Thomas Meteyard, her author picture for a book published by Copeland and Day.

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Above: Portrait of Louise Imogen Guiney from Loyola University Special Collections.

Ralph Adams Cram

Ralph Adams Cram (1863-1942) was an architect and writer based in Boston.  He is best known for his churches and public buildings, which include the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York and key buildings on the campuses of West Point, Princeton U., Rice U., U. of Southern California, and others, and both bridges between Plymouth, MA and Cape Cod.  The Berkeley Building (aka The Old John Hancock) in Boston’s Back Bay was designed by his firm shortly after his death and pays tribute to the style he established. He also served as Head of the Architecture Department at MIT.

Cram grew up in New Hampshire and moved to Boston to pursue architecture, landing a job at a firm with the help of family friends.  He also worked briefly as an art critic for a local newspaper.  After winning a small amount of money in an architecture contest, he traveled to Europe with a close friend.  This trip had a major impact on him– it inspired his lifelong interest in pre-Renaissance art and architecture, and during his visit to Rome he was inspired to convert to Anglo-Catholicism (ie the Church of England, now better know in the US as Episcopalianism).

One of Cram’s heroes was pre-Raphaelite art critic John Ruskin, who advocated a neo-Gothic approach to architecture, applying medieval principles to modern applications.  Cram championed this style in the US, a reaction to the neo-Classical styles he felt had been overused and cheapened here.

In the 1890s Cram was a key figure in Boston’s bohemian scene and a member of the Visionists.  During this time he wrote two books he later described as “indiscretions,” both published by fellow Visionists Copeland and Day.  Black Spirits and White is a book of ghost stories inspired by his travels in Europe.  The Decadent is a dialogue between two Visionist-like characters, one who advocates Christian Socialism and another who argues that Western civilization is in a period of decline (”decadence”) and advocates inaction.

Cram founded an architecture firm in 1889 with partner Charles Francis Wentworth.  Visual artist and architect Bertram Goodhue moved to Boston to work for the firm as a draftsman and later became a partner.  He also became a member of the Visionists.  Both Cram and Goodhue had strong visions of their own, and Goodhue eventually moved on.  In 1913 the firm changed its name to Cram and Ferguson.

In 1916, Cram masterminded an elaborate pageant titled “The Masque of Power” to celebrate MIT’s move from Boston’s Back Back to its current home in Cambridge.  He recruited about 1700 participants in costume and a professional choreographer, and cast himself as Merlin.

Recommended further reading:

My Life in Architecture by Ralph Adams Cram (out of print but check your library)

The Architecture of Ralph Adams Cram and his Firm by Ethan Anthony

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Above: Portrait of Ralph Adams Cram by F. Holland Day about 1890.  Print in the Library of Congress.

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Above: Ralph Adams Cram on the cover of Time magazine, 1926.

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Above: Ralph Adams Cram dressed as Merlin for “The Masque of Power” pageant celebrating MIT’s move to Cambridge, 1916.  From the MIT Museum.

If you are familiar with MIT you may be familiar with this image which hangs in the “Infinite Corridor” as part of a display commemorating the move.

F. Holland Day

Fred Holland Day (1864-1933) was an American photographer and publisher based in Boston who played a key role in establishing photography as a fine art, and served as a mentor to many other artists and photographers.

Day was born to a wealthy family in the part of Dedham, MA that is now Norwood.  As a child her was an avid reader and collector, and his hero was English Romantic poet John Keats.  (In fact, he helped to organize the fist public memorial to Keats in England.)  He attended the Chauncey School in Boston where he met lifelong friend Louise Imogen Guiney.  Day and Guiney were part of several literary clubs and artistic circles, including the Visionists.

With fellow Visionist Herbert Copeland, Day founded a small press, Copeland and Day.  Inspired by William Morris’ Kelmscott press, they championed quality materials and fine craftsmanship in bookmaking.  They were the American publishers of Oscar Wilde’s Salomé and the risqué English journal The Yellow Book.

In time Day’s attention turned from publishing to his lifelong passion, photography.  He began taking pictures to document his visits to important literary sites, but came to see photography as artistic expression, drawing inspiration from visual artists.  His work included portraits of his many fascinating acquaintances, often in costumes from his collection.  He also shot many male nudes, working with professional art models.  Much of his inspiration came from classical mythology or religious themes.  For his “sacred subjects” series, he re-enacted the crucifixion on a hillside in Norwood, casting himself as Christ and his friends as saints and Roman soldiers.

Day’s bold vision attracted the attention of others working to establish photography as a fine art, including Alfred Stieglitz.  At the turn of the twentieth century, Day and Stieglitz were the two best know American photographers.  In 1900 and 1901, Day organized a show entitled “The New School of American Photography” in London and Paris which introduced Europeans to several leading American photographers.  Stieglitz discouraged associates in London from putting on the show, leading to a rift between him and Day.  After that, Day did not include his work in Stieglitz’s influential journals, which perhaps explains why he has not been remembered as well as Stieglitz.  A devastating fire at Day’s studio in 1904 destroyed most or all of his negatives and prints.  His work now exists in the form of prints in a fairly small number of institutions including the Met, the Library of Congress, The National Media Museum (UK), The Museum of Fine Arts Boston, and the George Eastman Museum.

Day’s Universalist upbringing and his experience as a self-taught artist may have instilled in him liberal social values and a strong sense of public service.  He was a friend, mentor, or teacher not only to emerging professional artists but to immigrant children in Boston’s South End and at a progressive school for students of color in Virginia.  In 1896 he received a letter from a friend who was a social worker in Boston, asking if he might have “any artist friend who would care to become interested in a little Assyrian boy, Kahlil G.” who had shown promise in art classes.  Day met with 13-year old Kahlil Gibran, let him help out in his studio, and lent him books from his collection.  Not long after, Gibran’s family sent him back to his native Lebanon (then a part of the Ottoman Empire) to continue his education.  When he returned to Boston in his twenties, Day hosted the first exhibition of Gibran’s visual art.  Through Day Gibran met Mary Elizabeth Haskell, who became his close friend and a key supporter of his work.  Best known for his 1923 book The Prophet, Gibran would become one of the best-selling poets of all time.

After the 1904 Day spent less of his time in Boston and more at Little Good Harbor, his beach house in Maine, originally purchased from Guiney.  There he focused on photography and hosted some of the many other influential photographers who were his friends or mentees.  These included Gertrude Kasebier, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Frederick Evans, Clarence White, Zaida Ben-Yusuf, fellow Visionist Francis Watts Lee, and Edward Steichen.  Steichen would become one of the most influential photographers of the 20th century and one of the first fashion photographers.

If you are in New England, a great way to learn more about Day is to visit his former home in Norwood, MA, now the headquarters of the Norwood Historical Society.  Check their website for tour information.

Recommended further reading: Through an Uncommon Lens: The Life and Photography of F. Holland Day by Patricia Fanning.

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Above: “Solitude,” 1901, a portrait of F. Holland Day by friend and mentee Edward Steichen.  Platinum print at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

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Portrait of F. Holland Day with a male model, 1902 by friend and mentee Clarence White.  A platinum print at The Met.

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Above: Portrait of F. Holland Day about 1898 by friend and fellow influential pictorialist Getrude Kasebier.  Platinum print at The Met.